* Non-injury to living beings
* Non-ownership of property
* Practice of chastity
Parsvanath, who was the 23rd Tirthankara, established the first four vows, while Mahavira added the fifth vow. Mahavira had asked his followers to shed all clothes and go about naked. This meant that the Jain monks had to observe absolute chastity and abandon all the pleasures of material life. They also had to perform rigorous asceticism along with long periods of fasting, self-mortification, Meditation and study of Jain Scriptures.
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