FOUNDED: Jainism began about 2,500 years ago in India.
FOUNDER: Nataputra Vardhamana, known as Mahavira, "Great Hero."
MAJOR SCRIPTURES: The Jain Agamas and Siddhantas.
ADHERENTS: About six million, almost exclusively in Central and South India, especially in Mumbai.
SECTS: There are two sects. The Digambara ("Sky-clad") sect holds that a saint should own nothing, not even clothes, thus their practice of wearing only a loincloth. They believe that salvation in this birth is not possible for women. The Svetambara ("White-robed") sect disagrees with these points.
The soul passes through various stages of spiritual development, called gunasthanas, progressive manifestations of the innate faculties of knowledge and power accompanied by decreasing sinfulness and increasing purity. Souls attain better births according to the amount of personal karma they are able to eliminate during life. Between births, souls dwell in one of the seven hells, the sixteen heavens or fourteen celestial regions. Liberated souls abide at the top of the universe. All Jains take five vows, but it is the monk who practices celibacy and poverty. Jainism places great stress on ahimsa, asceticism, yoga and monasticism as the means of attainment. Temple pujas are performed to the twenty-four Tirthankaras or spiritual preceptors, literally "ford-makers," those who take others across the ocean of samsara.
You also may enjoy this free books:Robert Ambelain - Martinism History And Doctrine
Anna Cora Mowatt Ritchie - Fairy Fingers
Charlotte Fell Smith - John Dee
Keywords: tantric buddhism daoist canon manipulation astral correspondences jainism sramana hallucinogenic poisonous field canonical daosist invoking pentagram india mahavira spirit rumi poems england elsewhere united livres vita libri